Sanding between coats of polyurethane helps to create a smooth, even surface for the next coat to adhere to and helps to eliminate any bubbles or brush marks. Sanding also helps to create a consistent level of abrasion, which allows the successive coats to bond effectively and produce a uniform, high-quality finish. Sanding should be done using fine-grit sandpaper, such as 220-grit, and only enough to scuff the surface so that the next coat can adhere.
Impact of No Sanding
If you don’t sand between coats of polyurethane, it may not adhere properly to the previous coat, leading to a rough and uneven surface. It may also result in bubbles or wrinkles in the finish, and the final coat may have a dull appearance. Sanding between coats helps to create a smooth surface for the next coat to adhere to, which results in a professional-looking and durable finish.
Putting a Second Coat of Polyurethane without Sanding
Can you put a second coat of poly without sanding the first one?” – a pretty common question!
Yes, you can apply a second coat of polyurethane without sanding, but it may not adhere properly and may result in an uneven and imperfect finish. The surface of the first coat needs to be properly prepared to ensure that the second coat adheres evenly and dries smoothly. Sanding with fine-grit sandpaper helps to scuff the surface, providing a slightly rough surface that allows the next coat to adhere.
Without sanding, the second coat may sit on top of the first coat, resulting in an uneven, bubbly, or wrinkled surface. So, to achieve a smooth, even finish, it is recommended to lightly sand the surface before each additional coat of polyurethane. Even, avoid improper sanding, as it also will end up giving a fragile surface.
Whether both Water-based and Oil-based Need Sanding
Yes, both water-based and oil-based polyurethane require sanding between coats for best results. It allows the successive coats to bond effectively. The type of sandpaper used and the amount of sanding needed may vary depending on the type of polyurethane used, but in general, both types of poly should be lightly sanded with fine-grit sandpaper before each additional coat is applied.
Different Types of Sandpaper for Sanding Polyurethane
When sanding between coats of polyurethane, different grits of sandpaper can be used, depending on the desired outcome. The most commonly used sandpapers for sanding polyurethane are:
- 220-grit sandpaper: This fine-grit sandpaper is often used for sanding between coats of polyurethane because it scuffs the surface just enough to allow the next coat to adhere, but does not remove too much material.
- 320-grit sandpaper: This even finer sandpaper can be used for the final sanding before applying the last coat of polyurethane. This grit leaves a smoother surface that requires less sanding after the final coat is applied.
- 400-grit sandpaper: This ultra-fine sandpaper is suitable for sanding between coats of water-based polyurethane. This grit leaves a very smooth surface that is less likely to scratch the surface of the final coat.
It is important to note that sanding too aggressively with a coarse sandpaper can remove too much material and affect the final finish. Light sanding with a fine-grit sandpaper is recommended to ensure a smooth, even finish.
How Much Should You Sand?
When sanding between coats of polyurethane, the goal is to scuff the surface just enough to allow the next coat to adhere, without removing too much material. The amount of sanding required will depend on the type of polyurethane and the surface being coated.
Typically, a light sanding with 220-grit sandpaper is sufficient. This will remove any bubbles, brush marks, or other imperfections in the surface and provide a slightly rough surface for the next coat to adhere to. Sanding should only be done until the surface is scuffed and smooth, not until all the previous coat is removed.
It’s important to avoid sanding too aggressively, as this can remove too much material and affect the final finish. Sanding should always be done gently and evenly, taking care not to sand through the previous coat or damage the surface underneath. After sanding, it is important to wipe the surface down with a clean, dry cloth to remove any dust or debris before applying the next coat of polyurethane.
Dry Time before Sanding
The dry time before sanding polyurethane depends on several factors, including the type of polyurethane being used, the temperature and humidity in the workspace, and the thickness of the previous coat.
For oil-based polyurethane, the recommended dry time before sanding is 6 to 10 hours. This allows the polyurethane to fully dry, which helps to prevent any damage or scratches during sanding.
For water-based polyurethane, the recommended dry time before sanding is usually between 4 and 6 hours. Water-based polyurethane dries faster than oil-based polyurethane, but it is still important to wait long enough for the previous coat to be fully dry before sanding.
In general, it’s best to follow the manufacturer’s recommended dry time before sanding. If in doubt, wait an extra hour or two before sanding to ensure the surface is completely dry and hard. It’s also important to keep the workspace well-ventilated and to avoid sanding in humid or damp conditions, as this can affect the drying time and the final finish.
Final Coat – Should it be Sanded?
The final coat of polyurethane should never be sanded. If you do, the glossy, water-resistant layer will be removed, exposing the surface to the environment. Don’t forget, the primary function of a sealant is to safeguard the finish underneath. By creating a glossy, moisture-resistant layer on a surface, they shield it from liquid damage and keep the finish underlying from being exposed. Therefore, the finish underlying becomes visible if you sand the final coating and remove the shiny layer.
However, you can use very fine-grit sandpaper to softly sand the final finish if it has flaws. This sandpaper will smooth out rough edges and bumps on top of the glossy layer rather than removing the shiny coating itself.
Sanding between coats of polyurethane is an important step in achieving a smooth, even finish on a project. Sanding helps to remove any bubbles, brush marks, or other imperfections in the surface, and helps to level out any ridges or bumps in the previous coats. When sanding polyurethane, it’s important to use the right type of sandpaper and to sand in the right way.